Using graph API you can access all the Active directory attributes. The me endpoint gives your profile information https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/me. To get a specific user’s information the endpoint should be https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/users/useremailaddress
For getting any specific AD attribute you can pass the required attribute as a query string https://graph.microsoft.com/v1.0/me?$select=jobTitle,department,displayName
In bigger active directory implementation, there will also be information stored on the Extension attributes, to get the information you will have to pass the name of the attribute “OnPremisesExtensionattributes” as a query string in the format as
Graph explorer is a nice tool to test the Graph endpoints. Refer the documentation from Microsoft on the different available AD endpoints
The beta ME endpoint https://graph.microsoft.com/beta/me gives more information of the user
The User profile service Rest API endpoint in SharePoint http://siteurl/_api/SP.UserProfiles.PeopleManager/GetMyProperties does not provide all the active directory information. For e.g Location, OnPremisesextensionAttributes etc information is not available. SharePoint UPS synchronizes the AD data of all users in schedule basis. So the other option is to use the Graph Endpoint if you need those information for your application customization.
Endpoint point to get a specific attribute is
For more information about different endpoint, refer this documentation from Microsoft.